When the Civil War ended in 1865, the states ratified the 13th, 14th, and 15th amendments which ended slavery and guaranteed African Americans the same rights as white Americans. Despite these guarantees, African Americans faced racial segregation, economic inequalities, and voting restrictions during the “Jim Crow era” from 1877 to 1954. In the years after World War II, African Americans were ready to wage a war of their own against discrimination and for their rights guaranteed in the Constitution. The Civil Rights movement included numerous successes and a diversity of leaders, including Jackie Robinson’s integration of professional baseball, nonviolent protest of Martin Luther King, Jr., the radical actions of Malcolm X, and the political leadership of Presidents John F. Kennedy and Lyndon Johnson. Meanwhile, Kennedy and Johnson changed America in the 1960s. At home, the Civil Rights Act of 1964 ended racial segregation and the “Great Society” expanded welfare. In foreign affairs, Cold War tensions increased in the 1960s due to the Cuban Missile Crisis and America’s entry into the Vietnam War.