The seeds of new conflict had been sown in WWI. The postwar years brought to Europe economic difficulties and a rise of powerful dictators driven by nationalism and the desire to expand their territory. Stalin, Mussolini and Hitler established totalitarian governments in Russia, Italy and Germany. Militant leaders took control of Japan. Totalitarian aggression in Europe, Africa, and Asia led to World War II in 1939. The US struggled to remain neutral but eventually was drawn into the war after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941. On the battle front, the USA fought on two fronts: the Pacific and in Europe. At home, Americans committed to total war, women and minorities participated by working in factories, the government took increasing control over the American economy. After FDR’s death in 1945, new president Harry Truman ended the war by ordering the dropping of atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan. World War II transformed America into an economic and political superpower.